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Estudios Científicos con "Peer-Review"
Escépticos del Calentamiento Global
Causado por el Hombre

¿El Calentamiento Global lo tiene acalorado? Venga y únase a nostros y discutamos el asunto. Expongamos los fraudes y revelemos la verdad. Tratemos de recuperar un poco de la cordura que se ha perdido con toda la histeria imperante.

[del sitio web: The Anti "Man-Made" Global Warming Resource] - Abril 28, 2008

Aquí presentamos muchos artículos con revisión de los pares ("peer-reviewed") que debería terminar con la ilusión de que hay un "consenso" entre los científicos acerca de las causas del calentamiento global. Los links apuntan a los estudios en su idioma original, en inglés. Los interesados en desen-mascarar al fraude los pueden usar en sus referencias y en sus discusiones.

Quienes están propagando el mito de calentamiento global antrópico están simplemente distorsionando la realidad y los hechos... y eso es decirlo de manera muy amable.


"Peer Review", Publicación en Las Mejores Revistas Científicas, Consenso Científico, y mucho más. (Robert Higgs, Ph.D. en Economía)

"Estudios científicos escépticos del Calentamiento Global Antrópico"

"Ningún científico creíble, con revisión de sus pares, está ya más en desacuerdo con que el planeta se está calentando y que los humanos lo están provocando." -

Laurie David, Productora de 'Una Verdad Incómoda'


Ciclo Climático de 1,500 Años:

A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice (Nature 316, 591 - 596, 15 August 1985)- C. Lorius, C. Ritz, J. Jouzel, L. Merlivat, N. I. Barkov

A Pervasive Millennial-Scale Cycle in North Atlantic Holocene and Glacial Climates (Science, Vol. 278. no. 5341, pp. 1257 - 1266, 14 November 1997)- Gerard Bond, William Showers, Maziet Cheseby, Rusty Lotti, Peter Almasi, Peter deMenocal, Paul Priore, Heidi Cullen, Irka Hajdas, Georges Bonani

A Variable Sun Paces Millennial Climate (Science, Vol. 294. no. 5546, pp. 1431 - 1433, 16 November 2001)- Richard A. Kerr

Cyclic Variation and Solar Forcing of Holocene Climate in the Alaskan Subarctic (Science, Vol. 301. no. 5641, pp. 1890 - 1893, 26 September 2003)- Feng Sheng Hu, Darrell Kaufman, Sumiko Yoneji, David Nelson, Aldo Shemesh, Yongsong Huang, Jian Tian, Gerard Bond, Benjamin Clegg, Thomas Brown

Decadal to millennial cyclicity in varves and turbidites from the Arabian Sea: hypothesis of tidal origin (Global and Planetary Change, Volume 34, Issues 3-4, Pages 313-325, November 2002)- W. H. Bergera, U. von Rad

Late Holocene approximately 1500-yr climatic periodicities and their implications (Geology, v. 26; no. 5; p. 471-473, May 1998)- Ian D. Campbell, Celina Campbell, Michael J. Apps, Nathaniel W. Rutter, Andrew B. G. Bush

Possible solar origin of the 1,470-year glacial climate cycle demonstrated in a coupled model (Nature 438, 208-211, 10 November 2005)- Holger Braun, Marcus Christl, Stefan Rahmstorf, Andrey Ganopolski, Augusto Mangini, Claudia Kubatzki, Kurt Roth, Bernd Kromet

The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: A possible cause of rapid climate change (PNAS, vol. 97, no. 8, 3814-3819, April 11, 2000)- Charles D. Keeling, Timothy P. Whorf

The origin of the 1500-year climate cycles in Holocene North-Atlantic records (Climate of the Past Discussions, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp.679-692, 2007)- M. Debret, V. Bout-Roumazeilles, F. Grousset, M. Desmet, J. F. McManus, N. Massei, D. Sebag, J.-R. Petit, Y. Copard, A. Trentesaux

Timing of abrupt climate change: A precise clock (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2003)- Stefan Rahmstorf

Timing of Millennial-Scale Climate Change in Antarctica and Greenland During the Last Glacial Period (Science, Volume 291, Issue 5501, pp. 109-112, 2001)- Thomas Blunier, Edward J. Brook

Widespread evidence of 1500 yr climate variability in North America during the past 14 000 yr (Geology, v. 30, no. 5, p. 455-458, May 2002)- André E. Viau, Konrad Gajewski, Philippe Fines, David E. Atkinson, Michael C. Sawada

Una Verdad Incómoda:

An Inconvenient Truth : a focus on its portrayal of the hydrologic cycle (GeoJournal, Volume 70, Number 1, September, 2007)- David R. Legates

An Inconvenient Truth : blurring the lines between science and science fiction (GeoJournal, Volume 70, Number 1, September 2007)- Roy W. Spencer

Origen Antrópico:

Environmental Effects of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide (Energy & Environment, Volume 10, Number 5, pp. 439-468, 1 September 1999)- Arthur B. Robinson, Noah E. Robinson, Willie Soon

Global warming (Progress in Physical Geography, 27, 448-455, 2003)- W. Soon, S. L. Baliunas

Human Contribution to Climate Change Remains Questionable (American Geophysical Society, Vol 80, page 183-187, April 20, 1999)- S. Fred Singer

Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L05204, 2004)- A. T. J. de Laat, A. N. Maurellis

Implications of the Secondary Role of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Forcing in Climate Change: Past, Present, and Future (Physical Geography, Volume 28, Number 2, pp. 97-125(29), March 2007)- Soon, Willie

Methodology and Results of Calculating Central California Surface Temperature Trends: Evidence of Human-Induced Climate Change? (Journal of Climate, Volume: 19 Issue: 4, February 2006)- Christy, J.R., W.B. Norris, K. Redmond, K. Gallo

Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties (Climate Research, Vol. 18: 259-275, 2001)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier

Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Risbey (2002) (Climate Research, Vol. 22: 187–188, 2002)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier

Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Reply to Karoly et al. (Climate Research, Vol. 24: 93–94, 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Kirill Ya. Kondratyev, Eric S. Posmentier

On global forces of nature driving the Earth's climate. Are humans involved? (Environmental Geology, Volume 50, Number 6, August, 2006)- L. F. Khilyuk and G. V. Chilingar

Quantitative implications of the secondary role of carbon dioxide climate forcing in the past glacial-interglacial cycles for the likely future climatic impacts of anthropogenic greenhouse-gas forcings (arXiv:0707.1276, 07/2007)- Soon, Willie

The continuing search for an anthropogenic climate change signal: Limitations of correlation-based approaches (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 24, No. 18, Pages 2319–2322, 1997)- David R. Legates, Robert E. Davis

Antártida:

A doubling in snow accumulation in the western Antarctic Peninsula since 1850 (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 35, L01706, 2008)- Elizabeth R. Thomas, Gareth J. Marshall, Joseph R. McConnell

First survey of Antarctic sub-ice shelf sediments reveals mid-Holocene ice shelf retreat (Geology, v. 29; no. 9; p. 787-790, September 2001)- Carol J. Pudsey, Jeffrey Evans

Orbitally induced oscillations in the East Antarctic ice sheet at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary (Nature 413, 719-723, October 2001)- Naish TR, Woolfe KJ, Barrett PJ, Wilson GS, Atkins C, Bohaty SM, Böcker CJ, Claps M, Davey FJ, Dunbar GB, Dunn AG, Fielding CR, Florindo F, Hannah MJ, Harwood DM, Henrys SA, Krissek LA, Lavelle M, van Der Meer J, McIntosh WC, Niessen F, Passchier S, Powell RD, Roberts AP, Sagnotti L, Scherer RP, Strong CP, Talarico F, Verosub KL, Villa G, Watkins DK, Webb PN, Wonik T

Past and Future Grounding-Line Retreat of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (Science, Vol. 286. no. 5438, pp. 280 - 283, October 1999)- H. Conway, B. L. Hall, G. H. Denton, A. M. Gades, E. D. Waddington

Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise (Science, Vol. 308. no. 5730, pp. 1898 - 1901, 24 June 2005)- Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna

Ártico
Actual and insolation-weighted Northern Hemisphere snow cover and sea-ice between 1973-2002 (Climate Dynamics, Volume 22, Issue 6-7, pp. 591-595, 2004)- R. Pielke, G. Liston, W. Chapman, D. Robinson

Scary Arctic Ice Loss? Blame the Wind (Science, Vol. 307. no. 5707, p. 203, 14 January 2005)- Richard A. Kerr

Sea-ice decline due to more than warming alone (Nature 450, 27, 1 November 2007)- Julia Slingo, Rowan SuttonCO2 lags Temperature changes:

180 years of atmospheric CO2 gas analysis by chemical methods (Energy & Environment, Volume 18, Number 2, pp. 259-282(24), March 2007)- Beck, Ernst-Georg

Ice core records of atmospheric CO2 around the last three glacial terminations (Science, Vol. 283. no. 5408, pp. 1712 - 1714, 12 March 1999)- Hubertus Fischer, Martin Wahlen, Jesse Smith, Derek Mastroianni, Bruce Deck

CITA: Registros de alta resolución de muestras de hielo de la Antátida muestran que las concentraciones de hielo aumentaron entre 80 y 100 partes por millón en volumen unos 600 (± 400) años después del calentamiento de los tres últimos deshielos. Southern Hemisphere and Deep-Sea Warming Led Deglacial Atmospheric CO2 Rise and Tropical Warming (Science, September 27, 2007)- Lowell Stott, Axel Timmermann, Robert Thunell

The phase relations among atmospheric CO2 content, temperature and global ice volume over the past 420 ka (Quaternary Science Reviews, Volume 20, Issue 4, Pages 583-589, February 2001)- Manfred Mudelsee

Timing of Atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic Temperature Changes Across Termination III (Science 14, Vol. 299. no. 5613, March 2003)- Nicolas Caillon, Jeffrey P. Severinghaus, Jean Jouzel, Jean-Marc Barnola, Jiancheng Kang, Volodya Y. Lipenkov

CITA: La secuencia de eventos durante Terminación III sugiere que el aumento del CO2 está retrasado en 800 (± 200) años después del calentamiento del deshielo u precedió al deshielo del Hemisferio Norte. Modelos Computarizados del Clima:

A comparison of tropical temperature trends with model predictions (International Journal of Climatology, 5 Dec 2007)- David H. Douglass, John R. Christy, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer

Altitude dependence of atmospheric temperature trends: Climate models versus observation (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L13208, 2004)- David H. Douglass, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer

Effects of bias in solar radiative transfer codes on global climate model simulations(Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L20717, 2005)- Albert Arking

Global Climate Models Violate Scaling of the Observed Atmospheric Variability (Physical Review Letters, Vol. 89, No. 2, July 8, 2002)- R. B. Govindan, Dmitry Vyushin, Armin Bunde, Stephen Brenner, Shlomo Havlin, Hans-Joachim Schellnhuber

Quantifying the influence of anthropogenic surface processes and inhomogeneities on gridded global climate data (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D24S09, 2007)- Ross R. McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels

Seductive Simulations? Uncertainty Distribution Around Climate Models (Social Studies of Science, Vol. 35, No. 6, 895-922, 2005)- Myanna Lahsen

Teoría del Invernadero:

Are observed changes in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere really dangerous? (Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology,v. 50, no. 2, p. 297-327, June 2002)- C. R. de Freitas

Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations over the Last Glacial Termination (Science, Vol. 291. no. 5501, 5 January 2001)- Eric Monnin, Andreas Indermühle, André Dällenbach, Jacqueline Flackiger, Bernhard Stauffer, Thomas F. Stocker, Dominique Raynaud, Jean-Marc Barnola

Atmospheric CO2 fluctuations during the last millennium reconstructed by stomatal frequency analysis of Tsuga heterophylla needles (Geology, v. 33; no. 1; p. 33-36, January 2005)- Lenny Kouwenberg, Rike Wagner, Wolfram Karschner, Henk Visscher

Can increasing carbon dioxide cause climate change? (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 94, pp. 8335-8342, August 1997)- Richard S. Lindzen

Cloud and radiation budget changes associated with tropical intraseasonal oscillations (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L15707, 2007)- Roy W. Spencer, William D. Braswell, John R. Christy, Justin Hnilo

CO2-induced global warming: a skeptic's view of potential climate change (Climate Research, Vol. 10: 69-82, 1998)- Sherwood B. Idso

Does the Earth Have an Adaptive Infrared Iris? (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 82, Issue 3, pp. 417-432, March 2001)- Richard S. Lindzen, Ming-Dah Chou, and Arthur Y. Hou

Falsification Of The Atmospheric CO2 Greenhouse Effects Within The Frame Of Physics (Physics, arXiv:0707.1161)- Gerhard Gerlich, Ralf D. Tscheuschner


CITA: A) No hay leyes de la física comunes entre el fenómeno del calentamiento en los invernaderos y los ficticios efectos del invernadero de la atmósfera. B) No hay cálculos para determinar una temperatura promedio de la superficie de un planeta, C) La fre-cuentemente mencionada diferencia de 33ºC es un número sin sentido calculado de manera errónea, D) Las fórmulas de la radiación de cavidad son usadas de manera inapropiada; E) La suposición de un equilibrio radiativo no es física; F) La conductividad térmica y la fricción no deben ser ajustadas a cero, la conjetura del invernadero atmos-férico está así falsificada.
Heat capacity, time constant, and sensitivity of Earth's climate system (Accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research)- Stephen E. Schwartz

Phanerozoic Climatic Zones and Paleogeography with a Consideration of Atmospheric CO2 Levels (Paleontological Journal, 2: 3-11, 2003)- A. J. Boucot, Chen Xu, C. R. Scotese

The "Greenhouse Effect" as a Function of Atmospheric Mass (Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Numbers 2-3, pp. 351-356, 1 May 2003)- H. Jelbring

Groenlandia:

Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet (Climatic Change, Volume 63, Numbers 1-2, pp. 201-221(21), March 2004)- Petr Chylek, Jason E. Box, Glen Lesins

Greenland warming of 1920-1930 and 1995-2005 (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, 2006)- Petr Chylek, M. K. Dubey, G. Lesins

Rapid Changes in Ice Discharge from Greenland Outlet Glaciers (Science, Vol. 315. no. 5818, pp. 1559 - 1561, 16 March 2007)- Ian M. Howat, Ian Joughin, Ted A. Scambos

Recent cooling in coastal southern Greenland and relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 30, No. 3, 2003)- Edward Hanna, John Cappelen

Recent Ice-Sheet Growth in the Interior of Greenland (Science 11, Vol. 310. no. 5750, pp. 1013 - 1016, November 2005)- Ola M. Johannessen, Kirill Khvorostovsky, Martin W. Miles, Leonid P. Bobylev

El Palo de Hockey:

Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years (Climate Research, Vol. 23, 89-110, January 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas

Corrections to the Mann et al (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemisphere Average Temperature Series (Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Number 6, pp. 751-771, November 2003)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick

The M&M Critique of the MBH98 Northern Hemisphere Climate Index: Update and Implications (Energy & Environment, Volume 16, Number 1, pp. 69-100, January 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick

Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, February 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick

CITA: Su método, cuando se ensaya con ruido rosa persistente, casi siempre produce una forma de palo de hockey... Reply to comment by Huybers on "Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance" (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, October 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick-

Reply to comment by von Storch and Zorita on "Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance" (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, October 2005)- Stephen McIntyre, Ross McKitrick

Highly variable Northern Hemisphere temperatures reconstructed from low- and high-resolution proxy data (Nature 433, 613-617, February 2005)- Anders Moberg, Dmitry M. Sonechkin, Karin Holmgren, Nina M. Datsenko and Wibjorn Karlën

Comment on "The Spatial Extent of 20th-Century Warmth in the Context of the Past 1200 Years" (Science, Vol. 316. no. 5833, p. 1844, June 2007)- Gerd Berger

A 2000-year global temperature reconstruction based on non-treering proxies (Energy & Environment, Volume 18, Numbers 7-8, pp. 1049-1058, December 2007)- C. Loehle

Huracanes:

Can We Detect Trends in Extreme Tropical Cyclones? (Science, Vol. 313. no. 5786, pp. 452 - 454, 28 July 2006)- Christopher W. Landsea, Bruce A. Harper, Karl Hoarau, John A. Knaff

Causes of the Unusually Destructive 2004 Atlantic Basin Hurricane Season (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 87, Issue 10, October 2006)- Philip J. Klotzbach, William M. Gray

Comments on "Impacts of CO2-Induced Warming on Simulated Hurricane Intensity and Precipitation: Sensitivity to the Choice of Climate Model and Convective Scheme" (Journal of Climate, Volume 18, Issue 23, December 2005)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Christopher Landsea

Counting Atlantic Tropical Cyclones Back to 1900 (EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Vol. 88, No. 18, Page 197, 2007)- Christopher W. Landsea

Hurricanes and Global Warming (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 86, Issue 11, November 2005)- R. A. Pielke Jr., C. Landsea, M. Mayfield, J. Laver, and R. Pasch

Meteorology: Are there trends in hurricane destruction? (Nature 438, E11, 22 December 2005) - Roger A. Pielke, Jr

Sea-surface temperatures and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 22, No. 33, L09708, 2006)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Robert E. Davis

Tropical Cyclones and Global Climate Change: A Post-IPCC Assessment (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 79, Issue 1, January 1998)- A. Henderson-Sellers, H. Zhang, G. Berz, K. Emanuel, W. Gray, C. Landsea, G. Holland, J. Lighthill, S.-L. Shieh, P. Webster, K. McGuffie

Kioto:

Time to ditch Kyoto (Nature 449, 973-975, 25 October 2007)- Gwyn Prins, Steve Rayner

Período Cálido Medieval - Pequeña Edad de Hielo:

A 700 year record of Southern Hemisphere extratropical climate variability (Annals of Glaciology, vol. 39, p.127-132, 2004)- P.A Mayewski, K. Maasch, J.W.C White, E.J. Steig, E. Meyerson, I. Goodwin, V.I. Morgan, T. van Ommen, M.A.J. Curran, J. Sourney, K. Kreutz

Coherent High- and Low-Latitude Climate Variability During the Holocene Warm Period (Science, Vol. 288. no. 5474, pp. 2198 - 2202, 23 June 2000)- Peter deMenocal, Joseph Ortiz, Tom Guilderson, Michael Sarnthein

Evidence for a 'Medieval Warm Period' in a 1,100 year tree-ring reconstruction of past austral summer temperatures in New Zealand (Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 12-1 to 12-4. 15 July 2002)- E. R. Cook, J. G. Palmer, R. D'Arrigo

Evidence for the existence of the medieval warm period in China (Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- De'Er Zhang

Glacial geological evidence for the medieval warm period (Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- Jean M. Grove, Roy Switsur

Late Holocene surface ocean conditions of the Norwegian Sea (Varing Plateau) (Paleooceanography, Vol. 18, No. 2, 1044, 2003)- Carin Andersson, Bjorg Risebrobakken, Eystein Jansen, Svein Olaf Dahl

Low-Frequency Signals in Long Tree-Ring Chronologies for Reconstructing Past Temperature Variability (Science, Vol. 295. no. 5563, pp. 2250 - 2253, 22 March 2002)- Jan Esper, Edward R. Cook, Fritz H. Schweingruber

Medieval climate warming and aridity as indicated by multiproxy evidence from the Kola Peninsula, Russia (Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Volume 209, Issues 1-4, Pages 113-125, 6 July 2004)- K. V. Kremenetski, T. Boettger, G. M. MacDonald, T. Vaschalova, L. Sulerzhitsky, A. Hiller

Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age and 20th century temperature variability from Chesapeake Bay (Global and Planetary Change, Volume 36, Issues 1-2, March 2003, Pages 17-29)- T. M. Cronin, G. S. Dwyer, T. Kamiya, S. Schwede, D. A. Willard

Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal (Energy and Environment, Vol. 14, Issues 2 & 3, April 11, 2003)- Willie Soon, Sallie Baliunas, Sherwood B. Idso, Craig Idso, David R. Legates

CITA: Muchos registros revelan que el Siglo 20 muy probablemente no es el más cálido como tampoco un singular período de clima extremo en el último milenio. The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period in the Sargasso Sea (Science, Vol. 274. no. 5292, pp. 1503 - 1508, 29 November 1996)- Lloyd D. Keigwin

The Little Ice Age and Medieval Warming in South Africa (South African Journal of Science 96: 121-126, 2000)- P. D. Tyson, W. Karlen, K. Holmgren and G. A. Heiss

The 'Mediaeval Warm Period' drought recorded in Lake Huguangyan, tropical South China (Holocene, Vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 511-516, 2002)- Guoqiang Chu, Jiaqi Liu, Qing Sun, Houyuan Lu, Zhaoyan Gu, Wenyuan Wang, Tungsheng Liu

The Medieval Warm Period in the Daihai Area (Journal of Lake Sciences, Vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 209-216, Sep 2002)- Z. Jin, J. Shen, S. Wang, E. Zhang

Torneträsk tree-ring width and density ad 500-2004: a test of climatic sensitivity and a new 1500-year reconstruction of north Fennoscandian summers (Climate Dynamics, January, 2008)- Håkan Grudd

Tree-ring and glacial evidence for the medieval warm epoch and the little ice age in southern South America (Climatic Change, Volume 26, Numbers 2-3, March, 1994)- Ricardo Villalba

Was the Medieval Warm Period Global? (Science, Vol. 291. no. 5508, pp. 1497 - 1499, 23 February 2001)- Wallace S. Broecker

CITA: La Pequeña Edad de Hielo y el subsiguiente calentamiento fueron globales en su extensión. En los Alpes ocurrieron en el Holoceno varias fluctuaciones en la línea de nieve, comparable en magnitud a la del calentamiento post Pequeña Edad de Hielo. Los registros de las perforaciones tanto en los hielos polares como en tierra de todos los continentes sugieren la existencia del Período Cálido Medieval. Finalmente, sequías multidecadales plagaron al occidente de los Estados Unidos durante la última parte del Período Cálido Medieval. Yo considero a esta evidencia suficientemente convincente para merituar una intensificación de los estudios que apuntan a dilucidar las fluctua-ciones climáticas del Holoceno, sobre las que se superpone el calentamiento debido a los gases invernadero. Osos Polar:

Polar bears of western Hudson Bay and climate change: Are warming spring air temperatures the "ultimate" survival control factor? (Ecological Complexity, Volume 4, Issue 3, Pages 73-84, September 2007)- M.G. Dyck, W. Soon, R.K. Baydack, D.R. Legates, S. Baliunas, T.F. Ball, L.O. Hancock

Nivel del Mar:

Estimating future sea level changes from past records (Global and Planetary Change, Volume 40, Issues 1-2, Pages 49-54, January 2004)- Nils-Axel Mörner

New perspectives for the future of the Maldives (Global and Planetary Change, v. 40, iss. 1-2, p. 177-182. 2004)- Nils-Axel Mörner, Michael Tooley, Goran Possnert

Snowfall-Driven Growth in East Antarctic Ice Sheet Mitigates Recent Sea-Level Rise (Science, Vol. 308. no. 5730, pp. 1898 - 1901, 24 June 2005)- Curt H. Davis, Yonghong Li, Joseph R. McConnell, Markus M. Frey, Edward Hanna)

Solar:

A mechanism for sun-climate connection (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, 2005)- Sultan Hameed, Jae N. Lee

A Millennium Scale Sunspot Reconstruction: Evidence For an Unusually Active Sun Since the 1940's (Physical Review Letters 91, 2003)- Ilya G. Usoskin, Sami K. Solanki, Manfred Schüssler, Kalevi Mursula, Katja Alanko

Celestial Climate Driver: A Perspective from Four Billion Years of the Carbon Cycle (Geoscience Canada, Volume 32, Number 1, March 2005)- Jön Veizer

Celestial driver of Phanerozoic climate? (GSA Volume 13, Issue 7, July 2003)- Nir J. Shaviv, Jön Veizer

Climate Change: The Sun's Role (arXiv:0706.3621, 23 Jun 2007)- Gerald E. Marsh

Comparison of proxy records of climate change and solar forcing (Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 23, Issue 4, p. 359-362, 02/1996)- Crowley, Thomas J., Kim, Kwang-Yul

Evidence of Solar Variation in Tree-Ring-Based Climate Reconstructions (Solar Physics, Volume 205, Number 2, Pages 403-417, February 2002)- M.G. Ogurtsov , G.E. Kocharov, M. Lindholm, J. Merilainen, M. Eronen, Yu.A. Nagovitsyn

Geophysical, archaeological, and historical evidence support a solar-output model for climate change (PNAS, Vol. 97, No. 23, 12433-12438, November 7, 2000)- Charles A. Perry, Kenneth J. Hsu

Has solar variability caused climate change that affected human culture? (Advances in Space Research, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 1173-1180, 2007)- Joan Feynmana

Imprint of Galactic dynamics on Earth's climate (Astronomische Nachrichten, Volume 327, Issue 9 , Pages 866 - 870, 10 Oct 2006)- H. Svensmark)

Is solar variability reflected in the Nile River? (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 111, D21114, 2006)- Alexander Ruzmaikin, Joan Feynman, Yuk L. Yung

Length of the Solar Cycle: An Indicator of Solar Activity Closely Associated with Climate (Science, Vol. 254. no. 5032, pp. 698 - 700, November 1991)- E. Friis-Christensen, K. Lassen

Linkages between solar activity, climate predictability and water resource development (Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, Vol 49 No 2, Pages 32-44, June 2007)- W J R Alexander, F Bailey, D B Bredenkamp, A van der Merwe, N Willemse

Long-Period Cycles of the Sun's Activity Recorded in Direct Solar Data and Proxies (Solar Physics, Volume 211, Numbers 1-2, December, 2002)- M.G. Ogurtsov, Yu.A. Nagovitsyn, G.E. Kocharov, H. Jungner

Orbital Controls on the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and the Tropical Climate (Paleoceanogrpahy Vol. 14, No. 4, Pages 441-456, 1999)- A. C. Clement, R. Seager, M. A. Cane

Palaeoenvironmental evidence for solar forcing of Holocene climate: linkages to solar science (Progress in Physical Geography, Vol. 23, No. 2, 181-204, 1999)- Frank M. Chambers, Michael I. Ogle, Jeffrey J. Blackford

Persistent Solar Influence on North Atlantic Climate During the Holocene (Science, Vol. 294. no. 5549, pp. 2130 - 2136, 7 December 2001)- Gerard Bond, Bernd Kromer, Juerg Beer, Raimund Muscheler, Michael N. Evans, William Showers, Sharon Hoffmann, Rusty Lotti-Bond, Irka Hajdas, Georges Bonani

Phenomenological solar contribution to the 1900-2000 global surface warming (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L05708, 2006)- N. Scafetta, B. J. West

Phenomenological solar signature in 400 years of reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature record (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L17718, 2006)- N. Scafetta, B. J. West

Possible solar forcing of century-scale drought frequency in the northern Great Plains (Geology, Vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 263-266, Mar 1999)-Zicheng Yu, Emi Ito

Reply to Lockwood and Fröhlich - The persistent role of the Sun in climate forcing (Danish National Space Center Scientific Report, 3/2007)- H. Svensmark, E.Friis-Christensen

Regional tropospheric responses to long-term solar activity variations (Advances in Space Research, Volume 40, Issue 7, Pages 1167-1172, 2007)- O.M. Raspopov, V.A. Dergachev, A.V. Kuzmin, O.V. Kozyreva, M.G. Ogurtsov, T. Kolström and E. Lopatin

Rhodes Fairbridge and the idea that the solar system regulates the Earth's climate (Journal of Coastal Research, SI 50, pp. 955-968, 2007)- Richard Mackey

Solar activity variations and global temperature (Energy (Oxford), Vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 1273-1284, 1993)- Friis-Christensen, Eigil

Solar and climate signal records in tree ring width from Chile (AD 1587-1994) (Planetary and Space Science, Volume 55, Issues 1-2, Pages 158-164, January 2007)- Nivaor Rodolfo Rigozoa, Daniel Jean Roger Nordemann, Heitor Evangelista da Silva, Mariza Pereira de Souza Echer, Ezequiel Echer

Solar correlates of Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude climate variability (International Journal of Climatology, Volume 22, Issue 8 , Pages 901 - 915, 27 May 2002)- Ronald E. Thresher

Solar Cycle Variability, Ozone, and Climate (Science, Vol. 284. no. 5412, pp. 305 - 308, 9 April 1999)- Drew Shindell, David Rind, Nambeth Balachandran, Judith Lean, Patrick Lonergan

Solar Forcing of Drought Frequency in the Maya Lowlands (Science, Vol. 292. no. 5520, pp. 1367 - 1370, 18 May 2001)- David A. Hodell, Mark Brenner, Jason H. Curtis, Thomas Guilderson

Solar total irradiance variation and the global sea surface temperature record (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 96, NO. D2, Pages 2835-2844, 1991)- George C. Reid

Solar variability and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface temperature (Geophysical Research Letters, Volume 25, Issue 7, p. 1035-1038, 1998)- E.W. Cliver, V. Boriakoff, J. Feynman

Solar variability and ring widths in fossil trees (Il Nuovo Cimento C, Volume 19, Number 4, July 1996)- S. Cecchini, M. Galli, T. Nanni, L. Ruggiero

Solar Variability Over the Past Several Millennia (Space Science Reviews, Volume 125, Issue 1-4, pp. 67-79, Friday, December 22, 2006)- J. Beer, M. Vonmoos, R. Muscheler

Suggestive correlations between the brightness of Neptune, solar variability, and Earth's temperature (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L08203, 2007)- H. B. Hammel, G. W. Lockwood

Surface warming by the solar cycle as revealed by the composite mean difference projection (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L14703, 2007)- Charles D. Camp, Ka Kit Tung

The link between the solar dynamo and climate - The evidence from a long mean air temperature series from Northern Ireland (Irish Astronomical Journal, vol. 21, no. 3-4, p. 251-254, 09/1994)- C.J. Butler, D.J. Johnston

The Sun-Earth Connection in Time Scales from Years to Decades and Centuries (Space Science Reviews, v. 95, Issue 1/2, p. 625-637, 2001)- T.I. Pulkkinen, H. Nevanlinna, P.J. Pulkkinen, M. Lockwood

Variable solar irradiance as a plausible agent for multidecadal variations in the Arctic-wide surface air temperature record of the past 130 years (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L16712, 2005)- Willie W.-H. Soon

Variability of the solar cycle length during the past five centuries and the apparent association with terrestrial climate (Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, Volume 57, Issue 8, Pages 835-845, July 1995)- K. Lassen, E. Friis-Christensen

Variations in Radiocarbon Concentration and Sunspot Activity (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 66, p.273, 01/1961)- Stuiver, M.

Variations in the Earth's Orbit: Pacemaker of the Ice Ages (Science, Vol. 194. no. 4270, pp. 1121 - 1132, 10 December 1976)- J. D. Hays, John Imbrie, N. J. Shackleton

Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to mid-1998: astronomical forcings of change in earth's climate? (New Astronomy, Volume 4, Issue 8, Pages 563-579, January 2000)- W. Soon, S. Baliunas, E. S. Posmentier, P. Okeke

What do we really know about the Sun-climate connection? (Advances in Space Research, Volume 20, Issue 4-5, p. 913-921, 1997)- Eigil Friis-Christensen, Henrik Svensmark

Will We Face Global Warming in the Nearest Future? (Geomagnetism i Aeronomia, Vol. 43, pp. 124-127, 2003)- V. S. Bashkirtsev, G. P. MashnichSolar -

Rayos Cósmicos:

Solar variability influences on weather and climate: Possible connections through cosmic ray fluxes and storm intensification (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 94, No. D12, p. 14783 - 14792, October 1989)- Brian A, Tinsley, Geoffrey M. Brown, Philip H. Scherrer

Hale-cycle effects in cosmic-ray intensity during the last four cycles (Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 246, Number 1, March 1996)- H. Mavromichalaki, A. Belehaki, X. Rafios, I. Tsagouri

Variation of Cosmic Ray Flux and Global Cloud Coverage - a Missing Link in Solar-Climate Relationships (Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Vol. 59, No. 11, pp. 1225-1232, July 1997)- Henrik Svensmark, Eigil Friis-Christensen

Influence of Cosmic Rays on Earth's Climate (Physical Review Letters, Volume 81, Issue 22, pp. 5027-5030, November 30, 1998)- Henrik Svensmark-

Reply to comments on "Variation of cosmic ray flux and global cloud coverage - a missing link in solar-climate relationships" (Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Volume 62, Issue 1, p. 79-80, January 2000)- Henrik Svensmark, Eigil Friis-Christensen

Cosmic rays and Earth's climate (Space Science Reviews, v. 93, Issue 1/2, p. 175-185, July 2000)- Henrik Svensmark

Cosmic rays and climate - The influence of cosmic rays on terrestrial clouds and global warming (Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 41 Issue 4 Page 4.18-4.22, August 2000)- E Palla Bagó, C J Butler

Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Climate (Space Science Reviews, v. 94, Issue 1/2, p. 215-230, November 2000)- Nigel Marsh, Henrik Svensmark
Low cloud properties influenced by cosmic rays (Physical Review Letters, Vol. 85, Issue 23, pp. 5004-5007, December 2000)- Nigel D Marsh, Henrik Svensmark

On the relationship of cosmic ray flux and precipitation (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, No. 8, pp. 1527-1530, 2001)- Dominic R. Kniveton and Martin C. Todd

Altitude variations of cosmic ray induced production of aerosols: Implications for global cloudiness and climate (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 107, No. A7, pp. SIA 8-1, July 2002)- Fangqun Yu

The Spiral Structure of the Milky Way, Cosmic Rays, and Ice Age Epochs on Earth (New Astronomy, Volume 8, Issue 1, p. 39-77, January 2003)- Nir J. Shaviv

Galactic cosmic ray and El Niño-Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 108, No. D6, pp. AAC 6-1, March 2003)- Nigel Marsh, Henrik Svensmark

The effects of galactic cosmic rays, modulated by solar terrestrial magnetic fields, on the climate (Russian Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 6, No. 5, October 2004)- V. A. Dergachev, P. B. Dmitriev, O. M. Raspopov, B. Van Geel

Formation of large NAT particles and denitrification in polar stratosphere: possible role of cosmic rays and effect of solar activity (Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Volume 4, Issue 9/10, pp. 2273-2283, November 2004)- F. Yu

Long-term variations of the surface pressure in the North Atlantic and possible association with solar activity and galactic cosmic rays (Advances in Space Research, Volume 35, Issue 3, Pages 484-490, 2005)- S.V. Veretenenko, , V.A. Dergachev, P.B. Dmitriyev

Galactic Cosmic Rays and Insolation are the Main Drivers of Global Climate of the Earth (arXiv:hep-ph/0506208, June 2005)- V.D. Rusov, I.V. Radin, A.V. Glushkov, V.N. Vaschenko, V.N.Pavlovich, T.N. Zelentsova, O.T. Mihalys, V.A.Tarasov, A. Kolos

On climate response to changes in the cosmic ray flux and radiative budget (Journal of Geophysical Research, Volume 110, Issue A8, August 2005)- Nir J. Shaviv

Cosmic rays and the biosphere over 4 billion years (Astronomische Nachrichten, Vol. 327, Issue 9, Page 871, 2006)- Henrik Svensmark

The Antarctic climate anomaly and galactic cosmic rays (physics/0612145v1, December 2006)- Henrik Svensmark

Interstellar-Terrestrial Relations: Variable Cosmic Environments, The Dynamic Heliosphere, and Their Imprints on Terrestrial Archives and Climate (Space Science Reviews, Volume 127, Numbers 1-4, December 2006)- K. Scherer, H. Fichtner, T. Borrmann, J. Beer, L. Desorgher, E. Flükiger, H. Fahr, S. Ferreira, U. Langner, M. Potgieter, B. Heber, J. Masarik, N. Shaviv, J. Veizer

Empirical evidence for a nonlinear effect of galactic cosmic rays on clouds (Royal Society of London Proceedings Series A, Vol. 462, Issue 2068, p.1221-1233, April 2006)- R. Giles Harrison, David B. Stephenson

Cosmoclimatology: a new theory emerges (Astronomy & Geophysics, Volume 48 Issue 1, Page 1.18-1.24, February 2007)- Henrik Svensmark

Evidence for a physical linkage between galactic cosmic rays and regional climate time series (Journal Advances in Space Research, February 2007)- Charles A. Perrya

200-year variations in cosmic rays modulated by solar activity and their climatic response (Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Volume 71, Number 7, July 2007)- O. M. Raspopov, V. A. Dergachev

On the possible contribution of solar-cosmic factors to the global warming of XX century (Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Physics, Volume 71, Number 7, July 2007)- M. G. Ogurtsov

Cosmic rays and climate of the Earth: possible connection (Comptes Rendus Geosciences, December 2007)- Ilya G. Usoskina, Gennady A. Kovaltsovb

Galactic Cosmic Rays - Clouds Effect and Bifurcation Model of the Earth Global Climate. Part 1. Theory (arXiv:0803.2765, Mar 2008)-V. Rusov, A. Glushkov, V. Vaschenko, O. Mihalys, S. Kosenko, S. Mavrodiev, B. Vachev

Extinción de Especies:

Dangers of crying wolf over risk of extinctions (Nature 428, 799, 22 April 2004)- Richard J. Ladle, Paul Jepson, Miguel B. Araújo & Robert J. Whittaker

Temperaturas:

A test of corrections for extraneous signals in gridded surface temperature data (Climate Research, Vol. 26: 159-173, 2004)- Ross McKitrick, Patrick J. Michaels

Analysis of trends in the variability of daily and monthly historical temperature measurements (Climate Research, Vol. 10: 27-33, 1998)- Patrick J. Michaels, Robert C. Balling Jr, Russell S. Vose, Paul C. Knappenberger

Conflicting Signals of Climatic Change in the Upper Indus Basin (Journal of Climate, Volume 19, Issue 17, p. 4276-4293, September 2006)- H. J. Fowler, D. R. Archer

Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence (Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 31, L13207, 2004)- David H. Douglass, Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer, Paul C. Knappenberger, Patrick J. Michaels

Differential trends in tropical sea surface and atmospheric temperatures since 1979 (Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 28, NO. 1, PAGES 183-186, 2001)- Christy, J.R., D.E. Parker, S.J. Brown, I. Macadam, M. Stendel, W.B. Norris

Documentation of uncertainties and biases associated with surface temperature measurement sites for climate change assessment. (Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88:6, 913-928, 2007)- Pielke Sr., R.A. J. Nielsen-Gammon, C. Davey, J. Angel, O. Bliss, N. Doesken, M. Cai., S. Fall, D. Niyogi, K. Gallo, R. Hale, K.G. Hubbard, X. Lin, H. Li, S. Raman

Does a Global Temperature Exist? (Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics, June 2006)- Christopher Essex, Ross McKitrick, Bjarne Andresen

Estimation and representation of long-term (>40 year) trends of Northern-Hemisphere-gridded surface temperature: A note of caution (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L03209, 2004)- Willie W.-H. Soon, David R. Legates, Sallie L. Baliunas

Multi-scale analysis of global temperature changes and trend of a drop in temperature in the next 20 years (Springer Wien, Volume 95, January, 2007)- Lin Zhen-Shan, Sun Xian

Nature of observed temperature changes across the United States during the 20th century (Climate Research, Vol. 17: 45-53, 2001)- Paul C. Knappenberger, Patrick J. Michaels, Robert E. Davis

Natural signals in the MSU lower tropospheric temperature record (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No. 18, pp. 2905-2908, 2000)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger

Observed warming in cold anticyclones (Climate Research, Vol. 14: 1-6, 2000)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Robert C. Balling Jr, Robert E. Davis

Revised 21st century temperature projections (Climate Research, Vol. 23: 1-9, 2002)- Patrick J. Michaels, Paul C. Knappenberger, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Robert E. Davis

Test for harmful collinearity among predictor variables used in modeling global temperature (Climate Research, Vol. 24: 15-18, 2003)- David H. Douglass, B. David Clader, John R. Christy, Patrick J. Michaels, David A. Belsley

Tropospheric temperature change since 1979 from tropical radiosonde and satellite measurements (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D06102, 2007)- John R. Christy, William B. Norris, Roy W. Spencer, Justin J. Hnilo

What may we conclude about global tropospheric temperature trends? (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 31, L06211, 2004)- Christy, J.R., W.B. Norris

Sin Categoría:

A new dynamical mechanism for major climate shifts (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 34, L13705, 2007)- Anastasios A. Tsonis, Kyle Swanson, Sergey Kravtsov

Climate change 2007: Lifting the taboo on adaptation (Nature 445, 597-598, 8 February 2007)- Roger Pielke Jr, Gwyn Prins, Steve Rayner, Daniel Sarewitz

Floods, droughts and climate change (S. Afr. J. Sci./Suid-Afr. Tydskr. Wet. Vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 403-408, Aug. 1995)- Alexander, W J R

Global warming and malaria: a call for accuracy (Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 4, Issue 6, Pages 323-324, June 2004)- P. Reiter, C. Thomas, P. Atkinson, S. Hay, S. Randolph, D. Rogers, G. Shanks, R. Snow, A. Spielman

Global Warming and the Next Ice Age (Science, Vol. 304. no. 5669, pp. 400 - 402, 16 April 2004)- Andrew J. Weaver, Claude Hillaire-Marcel

Gulf Stream safe if wind blows and Earth turns (Nature 428, 601, 8 April 2004)- Carl Wunsch

Is global warming climate change? (Nature 380, 478, 11 April 1996)- Adrian H. Gordon, John A. T. Bye, Roland A. D. Byron-Scott

Measurement-based estimation of the spatial gradient of aerosol radiative forcing (Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 33, L11813, 2006)- Toshihisa Matsui, Roger A. Pielke Sr.

Misdefining "climate change'': consequences for science and action (Environmental Science & Policy, Volume 8, Issue 6, Pages 548-561, December 2005)- Roger A. Pielke, Jr.

New Little Ice Age Instead of Global Warming? (Energy & Environment, Volume 14, Numbers 2-3, pp. 327-350, 1 May 2003)- Landscheidt T. (disponible en Español en este sitio desde 2002: "Nueva Pequeña Edad de Hielo En Vez de Calentamiento Global?"

No upward trends in the occurrence of extreme floods in central Europe (Nature 425, 166-169, 11 September 2003)- Manfred Mudelsee, Michael Börngen, Gerd Tetzlaff, Uwe Grünewald

Some Coolness Concerning Global Warming (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Volume 71, Issue 3, pp. 288-299, March 1990)- Richard S. Lindzen

The Ever-Changing Climate System: Adapting to Challenges (Cumberland Law Review, 36 No. 3, 493-504, 2006)- Christy, J.R.

Very high-elevation Mont Blanc glaciated areas not affected by the 20th century climate change (Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 112, D09120, 2007)- C. Vincent, E. Le Meur, D. Six, M. Funk, M. Hoelzle, S. Preunkert

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