Average: +1.315º F - (+0.726º C)
The stations on the map are uniformely distributed, and the temperature trend is a clear representation of the climate status of the region.
Utah shows a warming of +1.315º F in 100 years, at about +0.13º F per decade (-0,07º C)
However, from a careful study from the map of Utah, we can see some strange things happening: in the southeast sector of the state, there are three cities close together, showing quite different temperature increases: Thomspon, 0.1º F, Green River, 1,4º F and Moab, 3.4º F. In a small area there is a wide variance of increases, denoting faulty records or other factors affecting the measurement of temperatu-res. In Moab's graph we see a fairly uniform upward trend, but in Green River there is a low peak of 48º F in 1975, while in Moab the same year the chart shows 53.4º F, and Thompson had 50.25º F. It is impossible for temperatures to vary so much in such a small region, in a period as long as one year. Those records show there is something that does not "smell good".
But then, the case of Riverdale = 0.5º F and Ogden = +1.7º F (in the north of Utah) things get worse. They are so close from each other that a difference of 2.25º F between them means some unnatural thing was going on there. Let's see a graph where both charts have been superimposed exactly: Riverdale temps are represented in green, and have a strong cooling trend (red trend line), while Ogden temps are in dark lilac with a strong warming (blue trend line) - all this separated by a few miles! Look at the graph and see where the temperature differ. Why this difference? Local climatic variations? In just a few miles? Hmmm... No way!
Both superimposed graphs show a high match for temperatures, something that is expected for stations separated a few miles apart. But we have marked four instances where there is a great deviation in both graphs: (1) 1919, (2) 1925, (3) 1979, and (4) 1989
, marked by red vertical arrows, and a)
with light blue arrows.
1919 shows a huge difference between both stations: while Ogden saw 53.2º F
as annual mean, Riverdale shows 49º F
, a full 4º F difference for just a few miles. In 1925, Ogden again had 52º F
, and Riverdale this time had just 50.3º F
. Then, when we see 1979 and 1989, the difference is reversed:
This time Ogden gets a cooler reading and Riverdale a warmer one
. Are these diferences caused by natural (or artificial) variations and correctly measured by the stations? We doubt it. Most probably errors were commited in measuring temperatures.
The U.S. weather station network is considered the best in the whole world, and there are good reasons for agreeing with this. However, even in the best meteorological network we can see anomalies due to errors as in this case. If this kind of errors are made in the best weather network in the world, we can then imagine the caliber of errors that are routinely made in most weather stations in less developed countries. Poor or obsolete measuring equipment is a factor; poorly trained personnel is another.
And there have been instances where temperatures have been altered to make them look colder than normal -as happened in Russia during the years when official subsidies were given to villages with exceptionally cold winters for buying fuel for heating. Later, when the policy for subsidies went down, the temperature records returned to "normal" and these records are interpreted by the IPCC as a "proof" that there has been a strong warming in Siberia!.
But the light blue arrows show another curious thing. The record for Ogden lacks data from 1991 onwards, but Riverdale data has correctly recorded the global cooling
caused by 1991 Pinatubo's eruption (in 1992 record) but the warmest year ever
, caused by the 1998 El Niño is recorded as a pronounced cooling!
What went wrong here? No one knows. And that sent us to look for El Niño years in the US, and found that 1998, claimed as the warmest in the 20th century, was not. Actually, the warmest year in Utah was by far 1933, while 1910 and 1925 come very close behind, followed by 1940 and 1954 - and warmer than 1998.
This means there are great variances in measured temperatures, even in small areas, indi-cating errors in measuring techniques, or that the weather station was affected by neaby constructions or structures giving higher readings than otherwise could be expected.
Global warming means there is an overall warming everywhere in the world,
but there must be a reason for the cooling in some regions - reason that has not been explained by any climate model.
As CO2 is blamed for the temperature increase and, as CO2 has increased steadily, there shouldn't be any cooling
anywhere. As we see cooling in many places around the world, the relation between CO2 and temperature increase is a false one.
Furthermore, as the relation between CO2 and temperature is derived from computer models, these climatic models are not an accurate image of the climatic system, and they cannot give an accurate prediction of the future climate.
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